Working with Postgresql on the command line

Written on 02 mar 2013 and tagged unix, development, postgresql, shell

Unlike MySQL, PostgreSQL doesn’t have lots of nice-looking GUI tools available to it. But don’t let that hold you back, because its command-line client packs a lot of power that you’ll quickly come to love, once you get to know it.

Editing your queries

You can use the psql program to interactively send queries to your database. Although there are steps you can take to make editing in the interactive shell easier1, nothing beats your regular editor.

To create a new SQL file in your editor and quickly send it to your database, you can use the --file (or -f) option. Assuming you use Vim, here are two example key mappings:

map <leader>r :w !psql -d mydb -1 -f -<cr>

This allows you to use \r in normal mode to execute the entire file, or in visual mode to execute only the current selection. Note the use of the -1 option (short for --single-transaction) to wrap your queries in a transaction, as if you had used BEGIN/COMMIT, and the - argument to -f to tell psql to read from standard input.

Alternatively, you can start your editor from the psql prompt using the \edit (or \e) metacommand. This will launch $EDITOR to edit a temporary file containing the last query you ran. When you quit the editor, psql will run the contents of that file as the next query.

Finally, you can use PostgreSQL variables and interpolation to make writing queries a little easier. For example:

psql> \set t my_long_table_name
psql> select count(*) from :t;

Note how psql will interpolate :t with my_long_table_name. You might use this to read a blob of data from a file, and insert it into a row:

psql> \set content `cat my_big_textfile`
psql> INSERT INTO posts VALUES (:'content');

The quotes in the placeholder name will escape the variable contents as an SQL literal.

Inspecting tables

The main reason I used to prefer GUIs to work with databases is how easy they make it explore the database schema. psql provides a handy family of metacommands to explore objects in the database, all starting with \d.2 You can list all tables in your current schema using just \d. Specify an additional name and psql will tell you all about that named object. For example, use \d comments to list column information of the comments table:

psql> \d comments
                                      Table "public.comments"
     Column                 Type                                   Modifiers                       
---------------- --------------------------- -----------------------------------------------------
id               integer                     not null default nextval('comments_id_seq'::regclass)
body             text                        not null
commentable_id   integer                     not null
commentable_type character varying(255)      not null
user_id          integer                     not null
created_at       timestamp without time zone not null
updated_at       timestamp without time zone not null
    "comments_pkey" PRIMARY KEY, btree (id)
    "index_comments_on_commentable_id_and_commentable_type" btree (commentable_id, commentable_type)
    "index_comments_on_user_id" btree (user_id)

To zoom in on the comments_id_seq sequence, use \d comments_id_seq:

    Sequence "public.comments_id_seq"
   Column      Type          Value        
------------- ------- -------------------
sequence_name name    comments_id_seq
last_value    bigint  375
start_value   bigint  1
increment_by  bigint  1
max_value     bigint  9223372036854775807
min_value     bigint  1
cache_value   bigint  1
log_cnt       bigint  21
is_cycled     boolean f
is_called     boolean t
Owned by:

I’ve found these commands tell me all I need to know about my database, without the need to take my hands off the keyboard.

Working with results

When querying your data, psql might give you a lot of data — way more than a single terminal’s screen full. There are several ways to make working with such data a little easier.

Customize the pager

psql will page through the query results using $PAGER, usually defaulting to more.3 If you prefer less (and why wouldn’t you?), you can set the $PAGER environment variable or use \setenv PAGER less at the prompt.

Customize the presentation

psql will draw pretty borders between your query columns. You can turn them off using \pset border 0, or add even more borders with \pset border 2. It’s also nice to use pretty unicode characters to draw those borders by setting \pset linestyle unicode. Finally, use wrapped mode to wrap content in columns with \pset format wrapped to prevent your columns from running wider than your screen.

When there’s so much content and wrapped mode won’t cut it anymore, switch to vertical mode using \x. This will display a single column per row, making many columns or long text values much easier to read.

Inspect data in external programs

Sometimes you just want to open your results in your editor or a spreadsheet for further analysis. Use \o data in the interactive shell (or the command line argument --output data) to redirect all output to the file ./data. Note that data might also be a script that accepts query results on standard input.

Tip: for some quick and dirty CSV generation, issue \f ',' to set the field separator to ,, \a to switch to unaligned output mode and \t to show tuples but no headers or footers. Or, from your shell: psql -d mydb -t -A -F,.

Other tweaks and tips

One nice customisation to make is tweaking the psql command prompt. Mine looks like this:

=# SELECT count(*) FROM posts;

The prompt is defined by the special PROMPT1, PROMPT2 and PROMPT3 variables. You’ll usually see PROMPT1; PROMPT2 is used when entering queries across multiple lines. Some of the special substitutions you can use are:

The current user name
The current database
> for regular users, # for database superusers.
Expected input indicator, hinting when you have unbalanced quotes or missed a semicolon.
Current transaction status: nothing when there’s no transaction, * if there is, ! if the transaction has failed.

Store preferences in .psqlrc

If you tweak your psql preferences it would be nice not to have to reapply them in every session. Store your customisations in ~/.psqlrc to issue them at the start of every session. My .psqlrc file looks like this:

\set PROMPT1 '%n@%/\n%R%x%# '
\set PROMPT2 '%R%x%# '
\pset border 1
\pset format wrapped
\pset linestyle unicode
\pset null NULL

You can then keep that file under source control, along with all your other dotfiles.

Running single commands

When you are really in a hurry, or are trying to practice some shell-scripting magic, you can use the --command (or -c) option to psql to run a one-off command:

$ psql -d mydb -c 'select count(*) from users;' -A -t

Using connection strings

If you have ever wanted to connect to a remote Heroku postgres database, you know how easy it is to get the connection details from Heroku:

$ heroku config:get DATABASE_URL -a myapp

Try converting that to the appropriate command-line options to psql to do some manual prodding around. But, turns out, psql will accept such a connection URI just fine:

$ psql `heroku config:get DATABASE_URL -a myapp`

In this particular example, you might as well run heroku pg:psql as that does essentially the same thing. But it’s good to know that you can do this, if you want to.


Using the psql program is much easier than it may seem. Its a good Unix citizen and it is very simple to integrate into your regular editor. This interoperability also makes it easy to customise your workflow even further with scripts and aliases – for example, to automatically connect to the database described in ./config/database.yml if you’re in a Rails project, or to automatically download and import data dumps from remote production databases. Such scripts are left as an exercise to the reader.

  1. For example, if you are a Vim user, try adding “set editing-mode vi” to ~/.inputrc to enable Vim key bindings in most interactive shells, including psql.

  2. There’s a whole range of \d metacommands, so read the psql man pages for more information.

  3. The exact program used differs per operating system, but on Mac OS X it seems to default to more.

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