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Up and running with Lotus

Up and coming Ruby web framework Lotus just hit 0.3.0. I’ve enjoyed playing with it over the last couple of weeks, and thought I’d write up what I’ve learned about its basic concepts.


Lotus was originally created by Luca Guidi. It’s composed of sub-frameworks that are quite loosely coupled, such as router, controller, view and model libraries. Documentation is set to receive more attention in the future, so diving into Lotus takes some reading of code at this point. Even though it is clear, well-structured code, but this post will help you through the basics.

Note: I will try to keep this article and the example repository up to date, but do consider this is written against version 0.3.0 of Lotus.

Update: Luca Guidi was kind enough to provide feedback on the first version of this article; I have updated it accordingly.

The example application

I’ve put up a very (very) simple application on Github at avdgaag/lotus-demo that I will refer to throughout. You can use it to follow along.

For starters, Lotus comes with a nice generator for setting up new applications, much like Rails does:

% gem install lotusrb
% lotus new demo --database postgresql --lotus-head

Use Lotus HEAD to get the latest and greatest. Lotus gives us these files:


We’ve got a mostly familiar layout here, with lib, spec, config and db directories that will hold no surprises. There’s also some noticeable differences compared to a Rails application.

Important features

  • A single Lotus project can hold several web applications. These are created in ./apps, with the default ./apps/web already created for you. The idea is to develop your domain model much like a Ruby gem in ./lib, and build the web-facing parts in ./apps. Different apps in a project might include a control panel, an API, a public-facing marketing website, and so forth.
  • Consequently, Lotus applications don’t have the familiar models directory; you are expected to define your business objects in ./lib. Rather than the Active Record pattern, Lotus::Model uses the data mapper pattern. You get ./lib/demo/entities and ./lib/demo/repositories directories by default, as well as a ./lib/config/mapping.rb.
  • Actions and views are objects in Lotus. A controller is merely a collection of actions (in a module). This is reflected in the generated application structure: there is no ./apps/controllers/home_controller.rb with an index method; instead, there is a ./apps/controllers/home/index.rb, which defines a Index class.
  • Lotus::View separates views from templates, much like Mustache does. You are encouraged to put logic in the view object (such as ./apps/web/views/home/index.rb) and your markup in a template file (i.e. ./apps/web/templates/home/index.html.erb).
  • Lotus currently has fewer Rake tasks and generators, although some interesting work is happening on this front. But, as you can tell from the generated directory structure, it is ready for test-driven development from the get-go.

Keep these points in mind and you’ll find Lotus holds few other surprises.

01. First steps

Let’s build a simple blogging application that shows a list of articles on the front page. The simplest first step is a feature test for an empty page:

# spec/web/features/homepage_spec.rb
require_relative '../../features_helper'

describe 'Homepage' do
  it 'links to the home page' do
    visit '/'
    assert page.has_link?('a', href: '/')

  it 'shows a placeholder' do
    visit '/'
    assert page.has_css?('.placeholder', text: 'There are no articles yet.')

Lotus comes with spec/features_helper.rb that sets you up for testing with Minitest and Capybara. If you prefer RSpec over Minitest, you can generate your initial application with the --test=rspec option.

Implementing these tests is easy enough; the new application comes with a default action, view and template. All you need to do is uncomment the default route:

# apps/web/config/routes.rb
get '/', to: 'home#index'

See the full changeset at bb301c. Launch a web server with lotus server and bathe in the glory of your first Lotus application at http://localhost:2300.

Note that Lotus is in no way bound to any particular testing framework, nor does it come with special test helpers or libraries. You’ll do fine with Minitest, and that’s what I will use here — but you could just as easily have used RSpec by adding the --test=rspec option to the application generator.

02. Loading some data

Let’s load some articles from a database to show on the page. We’ll need to prepare our database and set up some data access infrastructure. Lotus::Model support various kinds of adapters, one of which is a schema-less filesystem adapter (based on Ruby’s Marshal) which is nice for rapid prototyping — but for demonstration purposes I’ll stick to a conventional PostgreSQL database.

Creating a database table with a Sequel migration

I’m going to assume you have a database set up (if not, look into Postgres’ createdb command). You could manually maintain your database schema, but migrations under source control are much better. Lotus itself does not come with schema management functionality yet (it’s scheduled for the next release), but since Lotus::Model uses Sequel under the covers, we get its database migrations for free.

Let’s write a migration using Sequel’s migrations DSL in ./db/migations/001_create_articles.rb. The filename is important: it is prefixed with a database version number. Our migration might look like this:

Sequel.migration do
  change do
    create_table :articles do
      primary_key :id
      String :title, null: false
      String :body, text: true, null: false
      Time :created_at, null: false, default: 'now()'

See 64f0e7. Run the migrations using Sequel’s executable:

% sequel -m db/migrations postgres://localhost/demo_development

If you find this cumbersome, the Sequel migrations documentation contains an example of how you can turn this into a Rake task.

Accessing our database

To read and write from our database we’ll need a Lotus::Repository, that can map data from the database (using the mapper) to a Lotus::Entity. See 7cd9b21 for the full details, which is mostly simple boilerplate. Although the use of Lotus::Entity is recommended, I like how an entity boils down to a simple plain old Ruby object:

module Demo
  class Article
    attr_reader :id, :title, :body

    def initialize(attributes = {})
      @id, @title, @body = attributes.values_at(:id, :title, :body)

If that’s not easy to reason about, I don’t know what is. And because Lotus comes with some nifty Presenter features (which we’ll see later in this post), it comes quite naturally to keep view-related code separate from the entity. I like how nudges you, the developer, into the right direction.

You can play around with how this works by firing up an interactive console with lotus console:

>> article = Article.new(title: 'Hello, world', body: 'Lorem ipsum')
=> #<Demo::Article:0x007fc879427810 @title="Hello, world", @body="Lorem ipsum">
>> Demo::ArticleRepository.create(article)
=> #<Demo::Article:0x007fc879427810 @id=1 @title="Hello, world", @body="Lorem ipsum">

For testing purposes, make sure you enter some data into the database using either the Lotus console, or by manually executing some SQL.

Using our entities in our application

Armed with our new article repository and entity, we can change our application to display our data. Refer to bff69a6 for the full changeset. Loading data in a controller action is simple enough, but getting it into a template is a little less magical than you might be used to from Rails. We explicitly expose an action instance variable, so we can reference it in views and templates:

module Web::Controllers::Home
  class Index
    include Web::Action

    expose :articles

    def initialize(repository: Demo::ArticleRepository)
      @repository = repository

    def call(params)
      @articles = @repository.all

Exposures are stored in a hash attribute on the action, which makes for rather elegant testing:

require_relative '../../../spec_helper'

module Web::Controllers::Home
  describe Index do
    let(:repository) { OpenStruct.new(all: []) }
    let(:action) { Index.new(repository: repository) }

    it 'is successful' do
      response = action.call({})
      assert_equal 200, response[0],
        'expected HTTP status 200'

    it 'exposes articles to the view' do
      assert_same repository.all, action.exposures[:articles],
        'expected exposure to be result of repository.all'

Lotus is designed around simple objects with minimal interfaces that are easy to test in isolation, yet still work great together. It has to be one of the framework’s most important strengths.

03. Creating a new, custom action

We’ve got an index that lists all articles; now let’s create a view for a single article. We’ll need a new action for that, along with a view, template and accompanying tests. Luckily, Lotus has a generator that does just that:

% lotus generate action web articles#show

Making this work is mostly re-using the same concepts as were used in building the Index action, so refer to e9342ff for the full diff.

Now we have a Show action, it would be nice to use our routing system to generate URLs from the homepage to the article pages, as opposed to hard-coding them into our templates. We can use Lotus::Helpers::RoutingHelper (from in Lotus::Helpers), which comes included in all views by default, to generate our URLs:

# apps/web/config/routes.rb
get '/articles/:id', to: 'articles#show', as: 'article'

# apps/web/templates/home/index.html.erb
routes.article_path(id: 1) # => "/articles/1"

You can see this change applied in d25b381. Lotus does not come with the polymorphic routing system Rails provides (which would allow you to do link_to(article.title, article_path(article)) or even link_to(article.title, article)), but this works just as well.

03. Using presenters for object-oriented view logic

Lotus, being a complete web framework, comes with presenters to wrap entities with view logic, which I think works quite well. Since entities are so simple, presenters are quite simple too: they’re basically decorators with the nice addition of auto-escaping HTML characters in their output. A Lotus presenter might look like this:

class ArticlePresenter
  include Lotus::Presenter

  def created_at
    super.strftime '%d %m %Y %H:%M'

Articles are wrapped in presenters in a91fc9b. In this commit you can also see how methods defined in a view are automatically available for the template.

How Lotus loads code

This commit also demonstrates (through its use of the load_paths configuration) something else I like about Lotus: it does not do fancy autoloading like Rails does. Instead, it loads all it needs to load at launch — which is undeniably slower in big applications, but is consistent across environments. Lotus does, however, take care to load as little code as possible: everything is loaded when you launch a server or console, while only the framework and its configuration are loaded when you run unit tests. This allows you to have simplicity and speedy tests.

One thing you might have noticed in the example application is the use of Web::Action and Web::View constants, which are not explicitly defined anywhere in the codebase. Lotus actually takes its Lotus::Action and Lotus::View modules, duplicates them at launch to protect them from further accidental modification and provides these as application-local constants. This is what allows a Lotus project to contain multiple web applications at the same time, without interference.

04. Implementing comments

A blog is not a blog without comments, and a web application is not a web application when it doesn’t write data. The article show page can contain a form to post comments to the article through a new action (no form builders here, just plain HTML — although form builders are under development). Rather than rendering a view, our action will redirect back to the article page. Using the action generator, we can generate a comments#create action:

% lotus generate action web comments#create

This will give us a view and template which we have no need for, so delete them. The generator will create a GET route, so let’s replace it with a nicer POST route:

# apps/web/config/routes.rb
post '/articles/:article_id/comments', to: 'comments#create', as: 'article_comments'

Implementing the controller

Now we can implement our new Web::Controllers::Comments::Create action:

module Web::Controllers::Comments
  class Create
    include Web::Action

    def call(params)
      redirect_to "/articles/#{params[:article_id]}"

In its simplest form, this action simply creates a new Comment entity and then redirects. Testing such an action is pretty easy. Here’s a condensed example:

it 'is redirects to the article' do
  Demo::CommentRepository.stub :create, true do
    response = Create.new(repo).call(
      article_id: 1,
      author: 'John',
      body: 'lorem ipsum'
  assert_equal 302, response[0]
  assert_equal '/articles/1', response[1]['Location']

Since Lotus actions are “just” Rack applications, the responses they generate are Rack’s standard tuple of HTTP status, headers and body. There’s no need for special test helpers to assert an action will send a redirection header.

Listing an article’s comments

Displaying the comments is easy enough, once you know that Lotus::Model doesn’t come with associations at the moment. So, to load comments for the article, we have to implement a method on our newly created CommentRepository to look up records by article_id:

module Demo
  class CommentRepository
    include Lotus::Repository

    def self.for_article(article)
      query do
        where(article_id: article.id)

Repositories can be extended with class methods that can be chained together. Inside, you can use regular old Sequel methods to scope your query. Now we can use our new repository method in our Articles::Show action:

module Web::Controllers::Articles
  class Show
    include Web::Action

    expose :article, :comments

    def call(params)
      @article = Demo::ArticleRepository.find(params[:id])
      @comments = Demo::CommentRepository.for_article(@article)

From here, we can use our exposed comments to render them in in the articles/show.html.erb template. See the full changesets adding commenting in 42ded30 and e1bce61.

05. More robust commenting

Our current implementation of commenting is, of course, rather naive. First, let’s look at validating the user’s input; and then present some feedback to the user.

Parameter validation

Lotus comes with validations and parameter white listing built into the controller layer. First, we whitelist the parameters that we want to accept in our action:

module Web::Controllers::Comments
  class Index
    include Web::Action

    params do
      param :author
      param :body

    def call(params)
      # params only contains :author and :body keys

This is similar to what Rails’ strong parameters feature does. In Lotus however, we can also validate these parameters:

module Web::Controllers::Comments
  class Index
    include Web::Action

    params do
      param :author, presence: true
      param :body, presence: true

    def call(params)
      if params.valid?
        # continue processing
        # present error to user

If validation in the controller layer seems odd to you, you might want to read Luca Guidi’s reasoning behind the design of Lotus::Validations. It nicely explains why you might want to validate in the controller layer, or mix validations into use case objects, rather than into the model layer.

Parameter objects can also do coercion and deal with nested parameters, but for now this will do. See 455fc58 for my implementation of comment validation.

Providing user feedback

Now we have added validations, it would be useful to provide the user with some feedback when his comment was (or wasn’t) added. Lotus provides the “flash” pattern we know from Rails, whereby we can store information in the session for the next (and only the next) request. This feature is technically still private, so be advised it might change in the future.

For this to work, we need to enable sessions in our application configuration:

# uncomment this line in apps/web/application.rb
sessions :cookie, secret: ENV['WEB_SESSIONS_SECRET']

The secret for encrypting our cookies is read from the environment, which in turn is populated using Dotenv from config/.env.

Next, we can set a message in our Articles::Create action:

comment = Demo::Comment.new(params)
if params.valid? && Demo::CommentRepository.create(comment)
  flash[:notice] = 'Comment added'
  flash[:alert] = 'Something went wrong. Please try again.'

All that is left to us now is to show the contents of the flash to the user on our page. This is where things get a little tricky — and interesting.

Rendering flash in the view

Your first guess would be to access flash in your template, but that wouldn’t work. Our views (and therefore our templates) know nothing about the flash. This is, after all, purely a controller concern. To make the flash method available in the view layer, we’ll need to expose it. To always expose the flash to any view, we can modify our application configuration, which contains a controller.prepare block. This block will be included in our custom Web::Action module, and will therefore be available in every controller action. Let’s expose our flash there:

# apps/web/application.rb
controller.prepare do
  expose :flash

Next, we can access flash in our template, but building a loop around possible keys in the flash is hardly a template concern. What’s more, we probably want the flash to display consistently across all our templates — so it should probably go into the application layout rather than an individual view.

Let’s loop over the available flash contents in our application template:

# apps/web/templates/application.html.erb
<% each_flash do |style, message| %>
  <div class="flash flash--<%= style %>">
    <%= message %>
<% end %>

…and implement the each_flash message in our layout view object:

# apps/web/views/application_layout.rb
module Web::Views
  class ApplicationLayout
    include Web::Layout

    def each_flash
      %i(alert notice).each do |type|
        message = @scope.locals[:flash][type]
        yield type, message if message

Accessing the local scope of the view from a layout with @scope.locals was not particularly well documented, but easy enough to find by reading through the source code — a fun exercise in itself.

That nicely isolates the rendering of flash messages in our application layout, where it belongs. You can review the full changeset in 877e608.

06. Rounding up

The last few commits in the repository add some CSS and documentation, so gloss over them if you like. Note that although there is a Lotus::Assets framework, with support for asset precompilation, it does not come preconfigured with Lotus yet. In the meantime, Lotus will simply render static files from an app’s public directory (e.g. apps/web/public).

If you’ve come this far, you’ve seen the most important aspects of building web applications with Lotus, including data access, schema migrations, dealing with HTTP requests and unit testing. Lotus comes with many more features that I could not fit into this one guide, such as dealing with HTTP caching and mime types, security, REST-ful resources, view partials, and interactors (a.k.a. service objects). There’s plenty more for you to discover on your own.

There’s also plenty left to do around the framework. Lotus::Model works nicely but is not as feature-complete as, say, ActiveRecord or ROM, and some kind of support for static assets would be good. Also, documentation is still lacking and the toolbelt could do with some more automation. You can follow along with future developments on the Lotus blog, where weekly changelogs are posted. All in all, for 0.3.0 release, I think Lotus is doing pretty damn good.

After playing around with Lotus for a while, I really like how it allows me to build web applications by writing Ruby code. Unlike Rails, there’s no question about the dividing line between the language and the framework; it’s all just Ruby. As a simpler, but still complete framework, I think it fills a nice niche between Sinatra and Rails.

Check out the Lotus website for more information and documentation, and go forth and play!

  • ruby
  • lotus
Arjan van der Gaag

Arjan van der Gaag

A thirtysomething software developer, historian and all-round geek. This is his blog about Ruby, Rails, Javascript, Git, CSS, software and the web. Back to all talks and articles?


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